High-intensity interval training (HIIT), also called High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise (HIIE) or sprint interval training, is an enhanced form of [3]


[edit] Procedure

A HIIT session consists of a warm up period of exercise, followed by six to ten repetitions of high intensity exercise, separated by medium intensity exercise, and ending with a period of cool down exercise. The high intensity exercise should be done at near maximum intensity. The medium exercise should be about 50% intensity. The number of repetitions and length of each depends on the exercise. The goal is to do at least six cycles, and to have the entire HIIT session last at least fifteen minutes and not more than twenty.

The original protocol set a 2:1 ratio of work to recovery periods, for example, 30–40 seconds of hard sprinting alternated with 15–20 seconds of jogging or walking.

HIIT is considered to be an excellent way to maximize a workout that is limited on time.[4]

[edit] Tabata method

A popular regimen based on a 1996 study[6] In the original study, athletes using this method trained 4 times per week, plus another day of steady-state training, and obtained gains similar to a group of athletes who did steady state (70% VO2max) training 5 times per week. The steady state group had a higher VO2max at the end (from 52 to 57 ml/kg/min), but the Tabata group had started lower and gained more overall (from 48 to 55 ml/kg/min). Also, only the Tabata group had gained anaerobic capacity benefits.

[edit] Little method

An alternative regimen based on a 2009 study[7] uses 3 minutes for warming up, then 60 seconds of intense exercise (at 95% of VO2max) followed by 75 seconds of rest, repeated for 8–12 cycles. Subjects using this method trained 3 times per week, and obtained gains similar to what would be expected from subjects who did steady state (50–70% VO2max) training five times per week. While still a demanding form of training, this exercise protocol could be used by the general public with nothing more than an average exercise bike.

[edit] Benefits

[edit] Aerobic benefits

Studies by Tabata,[6]

High-intensity interval training has also been shown to improve athletic performance. For already well-trained athletes, improvements in performance become difficult to attain and increases in training volume can potentially yield no improvements. Previous research would suggest that, for athletes who are already trained, improvements in endurance performance can be achieved through high-intensity interval training. A recent study by Driller[15] showed an 8.2 second improvement in 2000m rowing time following 4 weeks of HIIT in well-trained rowers. This equates to a significant 2% improvement after just 7 interval training sessions. The interval training used by Driller and colleagues involved 8 x 2.5 minute work bouts at 90% of vVO2max, with individualized recovery intervals between each work bout.

[edit] Metabolic benefits

Long [16]

Recently it has been shown that two weeks of HIIT can substantially improve insulin action in young healthy men.[18] HIIT may therefore represent a viable method for prevention of type-2 diabetes.

[edit] Cardiovascular disease

A 2011 study by Buchan et al. assessing the effect of HIIT on cardiovascular disease markers in adolescents reported that "brief, intense exercise is a time efficient means for improving CVD risk factors in adolescents".[19]

[edit] Criticism

In one study, researchers compared the benefits and results of traditional cardiovascular exercise with HIIT, which was shown to be less effective: "A continuous exercise training protocol that can elicit high rates of fat oxidation increases the contribution of fat to substrate oxidation during exercise and can significantly increase insulin sensitivity compared with a eucaloric interval protocol." It should also be noted that the study participants were obese and sedentary prior to the study.[21]

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ Perry, Christopher G.R.; Heigenhauser, George J.F.; Bonen, Arend; Spriet, Lawrence L. (December 2008). "High-intensity aerobic interval training increases fat and carbohydrate metabolic capacities in human skeletal muscle". Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 33 (6): 1112-1123. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/nrc/apnm/2008/00000033/00000006/art00010.
  2. ^ Laursen, P.B.; Jenkins D.G. (2002). "The Scientific Basis for High-Intensity Interval Training: Optimising Training Programmes and Maximising Performance in Highly Trained Endurance Athletes". Sports Medicine 32 (1): 53-73. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/adis/smd/2002/00000032/00000001/art00003.
  3. ^ Talanian, Jason L.; Stuart D. R. Galloway, George J. F. Heigenhauser, Arend Bonen, Lawrence L. Spriet (2007). "Two weeks of high-intensity aerobic interval training increases the capacity for fat oxidation during exercise in women". Journal of Applied Physiology 102 (4): 1439-1447. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01098.2006.
  4. ^ Van Dusen, Allison (October 20, 2008). "Ten ways to get more from your workout". Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/2008/10/20/exercise-workout-shorter-forbeslife-cx_avd_1020health.html. Retrieved December 14, 2008.
  5. ^ 8897392.
  6. ^ 9139179.
  7. http://jp.physoc.org/content/early/2010/01/20/jphysiol.2009.181743.abstract.
  8. ^ 8028502.
  9. http://jp.physoc.org/cgi/content/short/575/3/901. Retrieved 2008-07-23.
  10. ^ King, Jeffrey W.. A Comparison of the Effects of Interval Training vs. Continuous Training on Weight Loss and Body Composition in Obese Pre-Menopausal Women (M.A. thesis). East Tennessee State University. http://etd-submit.etsu.edu/etd/theses/available/etd-0412101-214442/unrestricted/king0417.pdf.
  11. 12736843.
  12. 17313282.
  13. 17414804.
  14. 16876479.
  15. ^ Driller Matthew, Fell James, Gregory John, Shing Cecilia, Williams Andrew (2009). "The effects of high-intensity interval training in well-trained rowers". International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance 4: 1. http://www.humankinetics.com/IJSPP/viewarticle.cfm?aid=16868.
  16. ^ 21113312. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2991639/.
  17. 19175906. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2640399/.
  18. 18197184.
  19. 21465614.
  20. 18379212.
  21. ^ McDonald, Lyle. "Steady State vs. Interval Training". Body Recomposition. http://www.bodyrecomposition.com/fat-loss/stead-state-versus-intervals-finally-a-conclusion.html.

[edit] External links

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